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 Part I: The Tenach  (Old Testament/First Covenant Tnch., F.C.) 

 The Torah (The Law of Moses) Tor. 
 Genesis (B'Reyshith, Beginnings) Genesis, Gen. 1 
 Exodus (Shemoth, The Words) Exodus, Ex. 
 Leviticus (WaYiqra, And He Said) Leviticus, Lev. 
 Numbers (BaMidbar, In the Wilderness) Numbers, Num. 
 Deuteronomy (Devarim, Rep. of the Covenant) Deuteronomy, Deut. 
 The Nevi'im (Prophets) Prophetic Books, Nev., Proph. 

 Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Yesh., Ysh., Yeshay. 
 Yirmyahu (Jeremiah) Yir., Yirm. 
 Lamentations of Yirmyahu (Eychah) Lamentations, Lam. 
 Book of the Prophet Yechezqel (Ezekiel) Ychzql., Ych. 
 Book of the Prophet Daniel, Dan. 
 Book of the Prophet Hoshea (Hosea) Hos., Hosh. 
 Book of the Prophet Yoel (Joel) Yo. 
 Book of the Prophet Amos, Am. 
 Book of the Prophet Ovadyah (Obadiah) Ov., Ovad. 
 Book of the Prophet Yonah (Jonah) Yon. 
 Book of the Prophet Micha (Micah) Mic. 
 Book of the Prophet Nachum (Nahum) Nach. 
 Book of the Prophet Havaqquq (Habakkuk) Hav. 
 Book of the Prophet Tsefanyah (Zephaniah) Tsef., Tsf. 
 Book of the Prophet Haggay (Haggai) Hg., Hag. 
 Book of the Prophet Zecharyah (Zechariah) Zech., Zch. 
 Book of the Prophet Malachi, Mal. 

 The Ketuvim (Writings) Historical/Poetical Books, Ket., Ktvm. 
 Yehoshua (Joshua) Yeh., Yehosh. 
 Judges (Shoftim), Jdg., Judg. 
 Ruth, Ru. 
 Books of the Prophet Shmu'el (I & II Samuel) I Shm., 2 Shm. 
 Books of the Kings (Melachim), I K., 1 K., 2 Kgs. 
 Chronicles of Israel/Yehudah (Dibri HaYamim), I & II Chronicles, I Chr., 2 Chron. 
 Book of the Prophet Ezra, Ez. 
 Book of Nechemyah (Nehemiah) Nech. 
 The Magillah of Hadassah (Esther), Had. 
 The Story of Iyov (Job) Iy. 
 The Psalms (Tehillim) Ps. 
 Proverbs of Solomon (Mashley Shlomo) Pr., Prov. 
 Qoheleth Ecclesiastes (The Preacher) Qoh. 
 Song of Songs (Shir HaShirim), Song of Solomon, Song/S., S/S 
 

Part II: The Renewed Covenant (New Testament), R.C. 

 (B'rit Chadasha)  The Good News as Recounted by The Gospels G.N. 
 Mattithyahu (Matthew) Mat., Matt. 
 Markos (Mark) Mk., Mark. 
 Lukas (Luke) Lk., Luk. 
 Yochanan (John) Yoch. 
 Deeds of the Holy Spirit through the Envoys (Acts of the Apostles) Env. 
 Letters from the Envoys (Apostolic Epistles) Ltrs. 
 Letter from Rav Shaul (Paulos/Paul) to the Romans, Rom. 
 Letters from Shaul to the Korinthians (I & II Corinthians) I. Kor., 2 Kor. 
 Letter from Shaul to the Congregations in Galatia (Epistle of Paul to the Galatians) Gal. 
 Letter from Shaul to the Congreg. in Efesos (Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians) Ef., Efes. 
 Letter from Shaul to the Congreg. in Filippi (Epistle of Paul to the Philippians) Fil. 
 Letter from Shaul to the Congreg. in Kolossae (Epistle of Paul to the Colossians) Kol. 
 Letters from Shaul to the Cong. in Thessaloniki (I & II Thessalonians) I Thess., 1 Thes. 
 Letters from Shaul to Timotheos (I & II Timothy) I Tim., 2 Tim. 
 Letter from Shaul to Titos (Titus) Tt. 
 Letter from Shaul to Filemon (Philemon) Flmn. 
 Letter to the Hebrews (Messianic Jews) Heb. 
 Letter from Yaakov (James) Ykv. 
 Letters from (Shim'on) Kefa (I & II Peter) I Kf., 2 Kf. 
 Letters from Yochanan (I, II, & III John) I Yoch., 2 Yo., 3 Y. 
 Letter from Rav Yehudah (Jude) Yeh., Yhd. . 

 Prophecy: 
 Revelation of Yeshua the Messiah (Revelation to St. John the Divine) Rev. 


 
Other Common Proper Names and their meanings: 

 Persons 

 Andreas (Andrew) 
 Avimelech (Abimelech) = My father is a king =  Mein Vater ist ein König
 Aviyah (Abijah) = Yahweh is my Father  = Yahweh ist mein Vater
 Avraham (Abraham) = Father of Many Nations = Vater vieler Nationen
 Avram (Abram) = Exalted Father 
 Bar-Abbas (Barabbas) = Son of Abbas  = Sohn von Abbas
 Binyamin (Benjamin) = Son of my right hand/son of many days 
 Cham (Ham) 
 Chananyah (Hananiah, Ananias) 
 Chanokh (Enoch) = Teaching  = Lehren
 Chavvah (Eve) = Living  = Das Leben
 Dawid (David) from teh word for "beloved" 
 D'vorah (Deborah) = Bee  = Biene
 El'azar (Eleazar) = Elohim helped  = Elohim hilft
 Elisheva (Elizabeth) = My Elohim promised 
 Elohim Emphasizes that Yahweh is a judge (a plural word with singular grammatical usage) 
 Ever (Eber > Hebrew) = crossing over  = Hinübergehen
 Filippos (Philip) = Horse-lover  = Pferde-Liebhaber
 Gid'on (Gideon) 
 HaSikkaryoth (Iscariot) = Cut-throats  = Kehlen-Durchschneider
 Hevel (Abel) 
 Hizqiyahu (Hezekiah) = Yahweh is my strength  = Yahweh ist meine Kraft
 Kayafa (Caiaphas) 
 Kefa (Cephas, Peter, Petros) = A stone  = Ein Stein
 Lavan (Laban) = white one  = Der Weisse.
 Levi = My heart  = Mein Herz
 Manoach (Manoah) = Comfort, Strengthening 
 Mashiach (Messiah) = The Anointed One 
 Menashe (Manasseh) = Forgetting  =  Vergessen
 Methushelach (Methuselah) = With his death, it [the deluge] will come  = Mit seinem Tod kommt die Flut
 Miryam (Mary, Miriam) 
 Nachor (Nahor) 
 Noach (Noah) = Rest, Comfort = Behaglichkeit
 Pinchas (Phinehas, Phineas) 
 Qayin (Cain) 
 Rechav'am (Rehoboam) 
 Reuven (Reuben) = Look, a son!  = Guck mal, ein Sohn!
 Rivqah (Rebekah) 
 Sheth (Seth) = Appointed 
 Shim'on (Simon, Simeon) = Really, truly hearing  = Das wahre Hören
 Shlomo (Solomon) = His peace  = Sein Friede
 Stefanos (Stephen) = Crown  = Die krone
 Terach (Terah) 
 Tsadoq (Zadok > Sadducees) = Righteous  = gerecht
 Ts'daqyah (Zedekiah) = Yahweh is (my) righteousness  = Yahweh ist meine Gerechtigkeit
 Ya'aqov (Jacob) = Heel-grabber, supplanter = Verdränger
 Yafeth (Japheth) 
 Ya'ir (Jairus) 
 Yarav'am (Jeroboam) 
 Yared (Jared) = Shall come down  = Soll herunter kommen
 Yehoshafat (Jehoshaphat) = Yahweh is watching/looking  = Yahweh wacht
 Yehudah (Judah, Judas > Jew) = Praise  = Lob
 Yisrael (Israel) = One who struggles with Elohim/Prince with Elohim  = Der mit Gott kämpft
 Y'shua, Yeshua (Jesus) = Yahweh is salvation  Yahweh ist die ErLösung
 YHWH (Yahweh, Jehovah) = I will be what I will be  ('Ich bin das Leben')
 Yishai (Jesse) 
 Yishmael (Ishmael) = Elohim will hear  = Gott wird hören
 Yissaschar (Issachar) = There is recompense  = Es ist eine Entschädigung da.
 Yitzhaq (Isaac) = Laughter  = Das Lachen
 Yochanan (John) = Yahweh is gracious  = Yahweh ist wohlwollend
 Yoseyf (Joseph) = Yahweh will add  = Yahweh wird  dazu geben
 Yoshiyahu (Josiah) = Yahweh is my salvation  = Yahweh ist meine ErLösung
 Zakkai (Zacchaeus) 
 Zavdi (Zebedee) 
 Zecharyah (Zechariah, Zacharias) = Yahweh remembered  = Yahweh erinnert
 

Places 

 Amarah (Gomorrha) 
 Bavel (Babel) = Gate of Elohim =  Das Tor zu Gott
 Beyth Anyah (Bethany) = House of unripe figs  = Das Haus der unreifen Feigen
 Beyth Fagey (Bethphage) = House of ripe figs  = Das Haus der reifen Feigen
 Beyth Lechem (Bethlehem) = House of bread (food)  = Das Haus des Brotes
 Beyth Tsaydah (Bethsaida) 
 Eilat (Elath) 
 Ferath (Euphrates) 
 Galil (Galilee) = The circle  = Der Kreis
 Giv'ah (Gibeah) 
 Giv'on (Gibeon) 
 Hatzor (Hazor) = The Rock  = Der Felsen
 Kanaan (Canaan) 
 Karmel (Carmel) 
 Kaysria (Caesarea) = Caesar's place  = Deer Platz des Cäsars
 K'far Nachum (Capernaum) = Village of Consolation  = das Dorf des Trostes
 Moav (Moab) = From the father  = Von meinem Vater
 Moryah (Moriah) = Myrrh of Yahweh  = Die Myrre des Yahweh
 Natzereth (Nazareth) = Branch  = Zweig
 S'dom (Sodom) 
 Shiloah (Siloam) 
 Shomron (Samaria) 
 Soreq (Sorek) 
 Tsarfath (Zarephath, Sarepta) 
 Tsi'on (Zion) 
 Tsiydon (Sidon) 
 Tsoraa (Zorah) 
 Yafo (Joppa, Jaffa) = Beautiful  = Schön
 Yarden (Jordan) = Runs downward from Dan  = Das was herunterströmt von Dan
 Yehudah (Judea) = land of the Jews  = Das Land der Juden
 Yericho (Jericho) 
 Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) = Light and peace, or He sees (two kinds of) peace = Licht und Friede oder Er sieht zwei Arten des Friedens
 Yizre'el (Jezreel) = Elohim will help = Elohim wird helfen


Tribes and National groups   Chittites (Hittites)   Chiwites (Hivites)   Yevusites (Jebusites)



Namen und astrologische Symbole


Simeon
<=> Hören <=> Merkur: Sprechen, Hören,schreiben,lesen.
Levi <=> Binden <=> Saturn: Binden, Festhalten, fest
Judah <=> Güte <=> Jupiter: Güte,Vater, Gerechtigkeit, Fülle
Naphtali <=> Kämpfer <=> Mars: Kampf,Stärke
Gad <=> Schicksal,Glück <=> ~
Asser <=> Fröhlich,Feuer <=> Venus: Feuer,fröhlich,Schönheit (Venus=Ashera)
Issachar <=> käuflich <=> ~
Sebulaon <=> Wasser <=> ~ (fische/scorpion/krebs)
Josef <=> Das Leben geben <=> Mond


 

 

 

 

ADM

Rot

red

AVM

'um' Schraubenmutter

 

AVNYH

Schiff

 

AYN ajin

Nichts

 

AYNSVF eynsov

 

 

ALH

Gott

 

ALA

Großer Baum

 

ALH ela

Göttin

 

ALHYM elohim

weibliche Götter 

 

AM 'em

Mutter

 

AMH

Stamm, Geschlecht 

 

AMH

Sklavin Magd

 

AMH

Nation, Volk

 

AMN

Amen 

 

ARG

Weberschiffchen

 

ARK

Lang lang andauernd

 

BR

bar rein Sohn offen

 

BRA

erschaffen von Gott

 

BT

Tochter

 

BTVLH betula

Jungfrau

 

BG gov

Grube, Höhle

 

GYNH gina

Garten

 

gan

Garten,

garden

ganah, ginnah

Garten

 

zayin

Penis

 


Monate / Month


1. Tishri
2. Heshvan
3. Kislev
4. Tevet
5. Shevet
6. Adar
7. Nisan
8. Iyar
9. Sivan
10. Tammuz
11. Av
12. Elul
 

Alphabet

     


Letter
Meaning

Literal meaning

Sound

Value

ALEF
first, #1,Strength Leader
OX, BULL

vowel

1

BET
household, in, into, family
TENT, HOUSE

b,v

2

GIMEL
to lift up, pride, animal
CAMEL

g

3

DALET
pathway, to enter

DOOR

d

4

HEY
'the', to reveal
BEHOLD

h

5

VAV
'and', to add, to secure
NAIL, PEG

v

6

ZAYIN
cut, to cut off
WEAPON

z

7

CHET
private, to separate
FENCE, INNER ROOM

ch

8

TET
surround
SNAKE, SURROUND

t

9

YOOD
work, a deed, to make
HAND CLOSED

y

10

KAF
to cover, to open, allow
PALM OPEN HAND

k,ch

20

LAMED
control, authority, the tongue
CATTLE GOAD

l

30

MEM
liquid, massive, chaos
WATER

m

40

NOON
activity, life
FISH DARTING THROUGH THE WATER

n

50

SAMECH
support, twist slowly, turn

PROP

s

60

AYIN
to see, know, experience
EYE

'

70

PEY
to speak, a word, to open
MOUTH

p

80

TSADIK
catch, desire, need
FISH HOOK

ts

90

KOOF
behind, the last, the least
BACK OF THE HEAD

q,k,c

100

REYSH
a person, the head, the highest
HEAD OF A MAN

r

200

SHEEN

to consume, to destroy

TEETH

s,sh

300

TAV
to seal, to covenant
SIGN OR MARK


400


       Greek Alphabet

        

 

Glossery
 

 

 

 Admor:

Hebrew initials for: Adonenu Morenu VeRabenu (Our master, Our teacher our Rabbi). This is a title commonly used with Chassidic Rebbes. Admor of Ger, Admor of Satmer etc.

 

 Akeida:

1. Hebrew literally ‘binding’ Refers to the binding of Yitzchok on the altar.
2. Jewish scholarly book dealing with the funda mentals of the Jewish religion al Kiddish HaShem: Heb. for the sanctification of HaShem.
Refers to someone who is killed for being a Jew.

 

 Alsheich:

Jewish Biblical commentator Rabbi Moshe Al Sheich

 

 Am HaAretz:

Hebrew means ‘people of the land’ and refers to those who are ignorant of the Torah.

 

 Amidah:

Refers to the main silent prayer said standing

 

 Amora(Amoraim):

Rabbis of the period of the Mishnah

 

 Amorah:

Biblical city filled with wicked people Anshei Knesses

 

 HaGadolah:

Hebrew for Men of the great assembly.

 

 Apikorsim:

Heretics who reject the teachings of the Rabbis

 

 Ari Z’L:

Hebrew initials of the words: Adoni Rabbenu Yitzchok Zechorono LeVaracha our master Rabbi Yitzchok. Better known as Yitzchok Luria the great 16th century Kabbalist

 

 Aron Kodesh:

Hebrew for ‘the holy ark’ place in the synagogue where the Torah scrolls are kept. avodah: Hebrew word meaning ‘service’.
Refers to any type of service to HaShem

 

 Avraham Aveinu:

Hebrew name of Abraham

 

 Baal Shem Tov:

Founder of the Chassidic movement

 

 Baal Tshuva (Baalei    Tshuva):

Hebrew for someone who is a repentant sinner.

 

 Baal(es) Tzaddakah:

Hebrew word meaning a philanthropist

 

 Bamidbar:

Fourth book of the Torah. Called in English “Numbers”

 

 Bava Basra:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 Bava Kama:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 bechina(bechinos):

a subdivision of an *Inyan. Every Inyan has many bechinos.

 

 Beis HaKnesses:

Jewish house of worship

 

 Beis HaMedrash:

Jewish house of study

 

 Beis HaMikdash:

Heb. The Holy Temple

 

 Beis Midrash:

Jewish house of study

 

 Bereishis:

First book of the Torah. Called Genesis in English

 

 Betza:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 Brachos:

Tractate of the talmud

 

 bris:

Hebrew for circumcision

 

 bucharim:

Hebrew/Yiddish for young men who are learning in a Yeshiva

 

 caftan:

Type of long garment worn by Chasidim

 

 Chas V’Shalom:

Hebrew for ‘G-d forbid’

 

 Chasid:

Hebrew for a ‘pious person’

 

 chason:

Hebrew/Yiddish for a man who is engaged to be married

 

 Chazal:

Hebrew initials for: Chochmenu Zichrona Levaracha (Our sages of Blessed memory) Used to refer to Rabbis of the Talmud

 

 Cheder:

School for young Jewish children

 

 Chesed:

Hebrew word meaning acts of mercy

 

 Cheshvon:

Eighth month of the hebrew calendar

 

 Chocham (Chochomim):

Hebrew for ‘sage’ or scholar

 

 Chol HaMoed:

Intermediate days of a holiday

 

 Chometz:

Hebrew for leavening

 

 choson:

Hebrew/Yiddish for groom

 

 Chovos HaLavavos:

a moralistic and philosophical sefer

 

 Chozeh:

Hebrew for seer (prophet). Rebbe Yakov Yitzchok of Lublin was called the Chozeh because of his *Ruach HaKodesh.

 

 Chukos:

Weekly portion where the Torah is read from Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:1-22:1

 

 daas:

Hebrew word meaning knowledge

 

 Dayanim:

Hebrew for judge. Refers to religious judges.

 

 Days of Awe:

The days around the holidays of Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, so called because they are days of judgement.

 

 derech:

Heb ‘way’ refers to a path in serving HaShem

 

 Devorim:

Fifth book of the Torah. Called in English ‘Deuteronomy’.

 

 doven(davening):

Yiddish for pray.

 

 Drash:

A method of Biblical interpretation ascribing moral or ethical meaning to verses in the Torah.

 

 Eichah:

The Hebrew name for the book of Lamantations

 

 Eliyahu HaNavi:

Hebrew for the prophet Elijah

 

 Elul:

Sixth month of the Jewish year

 

 Eruv:

A legal act that causes different residences to be considered as one.

 

 Eruvin:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 Eyov:

The Hebrew name for the book of Job

 

 gabbai:

Hebrew for an attendant

 

 Gan Eden:

Hebrew name for paradise

 

 gematria:

Numerical value of the letters of the Hebrew words

 

 Gemilos Chasadim:

Hebrew word referring to acts of mercy.

 

 Ger Toshiv:

A ‘partial’ convert who agrees not to worship idols

 

 Gitten:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 Gao:

Hebrew title of one who is an especially learned scholar in Torah

 

 gehennim:

Place where one is punished for one’s sins after death. The Talmud says that except for especially wicked souls, the normal stay is up to one year.

 

 gematria:

The numerical value of the Hebrew letters.

 

 Haftorah:

A portion of the Tenach read after the Torah is read on Shabbos

 

 Haggadah:

Sefer that relates the story of the Exodus from Egypt and other things related to the night of Pesach.

 

 HaKohen:

Hebrew for ‘the Priest’ refers to someone who is a direct paternal descendant from Aaron in the Torah

 

 halacha:

Hebrew word meaning ‘law’

 

 HaRav:

The Rov (see Rov).

 

 HaRav HaKodesh:

The Holy Rov (see Rov)

 

 HaShem

Noun used in place of G-d. Lit. The Name

 

 house bocher:

Young man who lived in the house of a Rebbe and took care of private matters as needed.

 

 Hoshanah Rabbah:

Last day of the intermediate days of Succos. It is considered to be similar to Yom Kippur in that it is a time of repentance.

 

 HY’D:

Heb. HaShem Yimkom Domov: HaShem should avenge their blood.

 

 Inyan:

A spiritual concept or idea. A general idea as opposed to specifics. The specifics would be *bechinos.

 

 Ivdah:

A story that shows or teaches a specific method of serving HaShem

 

 kallah:

Hebrew/Yiddish for bride

 

 Kavanah(Kavanos):

Hebrew word for ‘intention’.

 

 Kesuvim:

Third part of the Tenach. Lit. Writings

 

 Kiddish:

Ceremony performed on Friday night over a cup of wine.

 

 Koheles:

One of the books of the Tenach, called in English Ecclesiastes.

 

 Kohen(Kohanim):

Hebrew for ‘the Priest’ refers to someone who is a direct paternal descendant from Aaron in the Torah

 

 Kol Nidrei:

First prayer of Yom KIppur kol v’chomer: Inference from a thing that is lesser/lighter to a thing which is greater/more stringent

 

 kosel marovi:

Hebrew for Western Wall, the only remaining standing part of the Temple.

 

 kosher:

Heb. fit. Refers to food that is permitted to eat.

 

 kvitel:

A note with names given to a Rebbe for him to pray for these people

 

 L’Chaim:

Refers to a custom of drinking and wishing L’Chaim - to life one to the other

 

 machiton:

Yiddish word that refers to ones child’s in-laws

 

 MaHarsha:

Hebrew initials for : Moreinu HaRav Shmuel Eliezer (our teacher Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer) a famous Talmud commentator

 

 Maggid:

In Europe this was a person who would give sermons on moral subjects. Many of the first Rebbes were Maggidim (pl. of Maggid).

 

 Malachi:

One of the books of the Tenach.

 

 Man:

Hebrew for manna. The bread that fell from Heaven in the desert.

 

 mazel tov:

Hebrew for ‘good luck’. Used for a wish of congratulations on various occasions

 

 matonos l’evyonim:

Hebrew for gifts to the poor. One of the mitzvos of Purim.

 

 Megilla:

1. Tractate of the Talmud
2. Another name for the Biblical book of Esther

 

 Megillas Esther:

Hebrew for the book of Esther

 

 melamed:

Hebrew for a teacher of young children

 

 Menuchos:

Tractate of the Talmud

 

 mesiros nefesh:

Hebrew for self sacrifice

 

 mezuzah:

parchment with various portions of the Torah which is hung on the side of the door.

 

 midah(midos:

A character trait, either good or bad.

 

 midah kenegid midah:

Heb. measure for measure

 

 Midrash:

Rabbinical work with homiletic interpretations

 

 Midrash Pleah:

A specific Midrash which contains Midrashic teachings that are difficult to understand.

 

 mikdash:

Hebrew of temple, lit. place of holiness

 

 mikvah:

Hebrew word referring to a ritual bath used for purification

 

 Minchah:

Name of the afternoon prayer

 

 minyan:

Group of Jewish men (at least ten) who have gathered for prayer.

 

 mishkan:

Hebrew for tabernacle

 

 Mishleh:

One of the books of the Tenach, called in English Proverbs.

 

 Mishloach Monos:

Hebrew for the sending of delicacies. One of the mitzvos of Purim.

 

 Mishnah:

An ancient Jewish work made of specific laws.

 

 Mispor Katon:

Type of gematria where the value of the letters is added. For example 26= 2 + 6 = 8.

 

 Mitzrayim:

Hebrew name for the land of Egypt

 

 mitzvah(mitzvos):

One of the commandments of the Torah.

 

 mohel:

Hebrew/Yiddish word for the person who performs a circumcision

 

 Mori:

Hebrew for my teacher.

 

 Moshe Rabbeinu:

Hebrew for Moses our teacher. A common Jewish way of referring to Moses.

 

 Moshiach:

Heb. Messiah

 

 Motzeh Shabbos:

Hebrew for Saturday night

 

 musar:

Hebrew for moral instruction.

 

 nashama:

Hebrew word for soul.

 

 Neviium:

Second part of the Tenach. Lit. Prophets

 

 niggunim:

Hebrew for songs. Usually used to refer to tunes composed and sung by Chasidim and their Rebbes.

 

 Nissan:

First month of the Hebrew calendar

 

 O’H:

Hebrew initials for the words: Olav HaShalom (may he rest in peace)

 

 Orach Chaim:

One of 4 sections of the Shulchan Aruch. This deals with the laws that apply to each person on a daily basis, throughout the year.

 

 Or HaChaim:

Jewish Torah commentary

 

 Parah:

Tractate of the Mishnah

 

 Parsha (Parshos):

lit. ‘portion’ refers to the portion of the Torah read each week.

 

 Parshas HaChodesh:

Special Parsha of the Torah read on the Shabbos before the first of the month of Nissan.

 

 Parshas Porah:

Special Parsha of the Torah read the Shabbos after Purim.

 

 payyut:

A type of prayer similar to a poem said on Jewish holidays

 

 Peah:

Tractate of the Mishnah

 

 Pesach:

Hebrew for Passover

 

 Pesachim:

One of the Tractates of the Talmud

 

 peshat:

A method of Biblical interpretation based on finding the simple meaning in the Torah.

 

 posek:

A verse in the Torah or Tenach

 

 Pilishtim:

Hebrew for Philistines

 

 pilpul (pilpulim):

Method of learning which involves hair-splitting logic.

 

 Pirkei Avos:

A Tractate of the Mishnah

 

 Rambam:

Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon also called Maimonides

 

 Ramban:

Rabbi Nachman ben Moshe, also called Nachmanides

 

 Rashi:

The primary commentary on the Tenach.

 

 Rav:

An official rabbi who renders legal decisions. Many of the Rebbes were both a Rebbe of Chasidim, and the Rov of the city in which they lived.

 

 Reb:

A title added to a persons name as a sign of respect.

 

 Rebbe:

Leader of a Chassidic group or a teacher

 

 Rebbe Reb:

A title added to a few special Rebbes as a sign of their higher spiritual stature.

 

 remez:

A method of Biblical interpretation based on finding hints in the Torah for various concepts.

 

 Rosh HaShanah:

1. Heb. New Year Holiday at the beginning of the year.
2. A tractate of the Talmud

 

 Rov:

see Rav

 

 Ruach HaKodesh:

Heb spirit of holiness. Refers to one who can see events, and understand things that are not apparent to the human eye.

 

 Rus:

Hebrew name the book of Ruth

 

 amech Mem:

Two Hebrew letters from the traditional name of the angel also called Satan. They are used instead of the name itself.

 

 Sanhedrin:

Tractate in the Talmud

 

 Seder:

Meal eaten the night of Passover where the Exodus from Egypt is remembered.

 

 sefer(seforim):

A Jewish religious book.

 

 Sefer Yitzerah:

Hebrew Kabbalistic work.

 

 Seferah:

The mitzvah of counting the days from Pesach to Shevous

 

 Segal:

Hebrew for ‘Segan L’Kohen’ assistant to the priest. refers to one who is of the tribe of Levi.

 

 Shabbos:

1. Tractate in the Talmud
2. Seventh day of the week

 

 Shabbos Chazon:

Shabbos before Tisha B’Av

 

 Shabbos Hefsakah:

The Shabbos between Shabbos Shekalim and Shabbos Zachor.

 

 Shabbos Nachmu:

Shabbos after Tisha B’Av

 

 Shabbos Shekalim:

Shabbos before the 1st of Adar

 

 Shabbos Tshuva:

Shabbos between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur

 

 Shabbos Zachor:

Shabbos before the holiday of Purim

 

 Shalom Bayis:

Hebrew phrase referring to peaceful relations between husband and wife

 

 Shechina:

Hebrew word denoting the divine presence.

 

 Shekalim:

See Shabbos Shekalim

 

 Shemos:

Second book of the Torah. Called Exodus in English

 

 sheiner yid:

Yiddish phrase referring to a Jew who considers himself better then others.

 

 Sheolos v’Tshuvos:

Heb. Questions and Answers. This refers to Jewish scholarly books which are based on legal questions asked of Rabbis and their answers.

 

 Shevous:

Jewish holiday

 

 Shemini Atzeres:

Eighth day of the holiday of Succos. it is a holiday for itself y 50 days after Pesach

 

 Shema:

Main Jewish prayer of the confession of faith. Contains 3 parshas. Devorim 6.5-9; 11.13-21 and Bamidbar 15.37-41

 

 Shemos:

The second book of the Torah. Called in English Exodus.

 

 Shevi’i Shel Pesach:

Seventh day of the holiday of Pesach

 

 Shir HaShirim:

Hebrew name for the Song of Songs

 

 Shir HaShirimRabbah:

Rabbinic Midrash on Song of Songs

 

 Shlah:

Jewish scholarly commentary on the Torah, and Jewish holidays by Rabbi Isaiah Horowitz

 

 Shlita:

Hebrew Initials for the words: Sh’Yichiya L’Aruch Yomim Tovim Amen. (He should have a good long life amen)

 

 Shmuel:

Hebrew name of the book of Samuel

 

 shochet:

Hebrew word for a person who performs ritual slaughter of animals.

 

 Shofar:

A ram’s horn blown on Rosh HaShanah

 

 shtender:

A stand of lectern, where books were placed during learning, or where a prayer book was placed by prayers.

 

 Shul:

Yiddish name for a synagogue

 

 Shulchan Aruch:

15th/16th century book of Jewish law

 

 Siddur:

Jewish prayer book.

 

 Sifrei:

Midrashic work on Devorim

 

 Simchas Torah:

Second day of Shemini Atzeres (in Israel there is only a single day), where one celebrates the completion of the readings of the Torah for that year.

 

 Slichos:

Penitential prayers said on the days before Rosh HaShanah and Yom KIppur

 

 sod:

A method of Biblical interpretation based on describing secret teachings in the Torah.

 

 Sodom:

Biblical city filled with wicked people

 

 Sota:

A tractate of the Talmud

 

 strakes:

Strips of velvet sown into the garments of some of the Rebbes, or great Rabbis.

 

 Succos:

Holiday after Yom Kippur where people sit in booths

 

 Sukkah:

One of the tractates of the Talmud

 

 Taanis:

One of the tractates of the Talmud.

 

 Talis(talesim):

A special garment that is used to cover a person in prayer.

 

 talmidei:

Hebrew for ‘disciples of’ Talmid (Talmidim): Disciples of a Rebbe.

 

 Talmud:

An ancient work of Jewish law.

 

 Talmud Chocham
   (Talmidei Chochomim):

Hebrew for Talmud sage, refers to one who is learned in Jewish legal texts.

 

 Tanna(Tannaim):

Rabbis of the Talmud

 

 Tanya:

Important chassidic work By Rebbe Shneur Zalman of Liadi.

 

 Targum Onkeles:

Aramaic translation of the Torah by Onkeles

 

 Taz:

One of the major commentators on the Shulchan Aruch

 

 techalis:

thread of blue wool attached to a talis

 

 Tehillim:

Hebrew name for Psalms.

 

 Tekunei Zohar:

The most esoteric section of the Zohar

 

 Tenach:

First letters from the three Hebrew words: Torah, Neviium, Kesuvim, which are the divisions of the jewish Bible. Torah is the first five books, Neviium are the prophetic works and Kesuvim are the other books.

 

 tephilin:

Special boxes that contain passages of the Torah which are worn by men in daily prayer.

 

 terumah:

Hebrew word for offering

 

 Tisha B’Av:

9th day of the month of Av, a major fast day

 

 Tisch:

Yiddish for ‘table’ Refers to a meal eaten by a Rebbe with his Chasidim

 

 Tishrei:

Seventh Month of the Hebrew calendar

 

 Torah:

a. First 5 books of the Jewish Bible
b. Also refers to the whole of Jewish law
c. also common term for a chassidic teaching

 

 Tosephos:

commentary on the talmud by the talmidim of Rashi

 

 Tshuva:

Hebrew word for repentance

 

 Three Weeks:

Period of time from 17 of Tammuz to 9 of Av

 

 Tzaddakah:

Hebrew for charity

 

 Tzaddekus:

righteous women

 

 Tzaddik (Tzaddikim):

lit. Righteous. Another name for a Chassidic Rebbe.

 

 tzitzis:

Strands that hang from the corners of a talis

 

 V’yikra:

Hebrew for the book of Leviticus

 

 Yakov:

Hebrew for Jacob

 

 Yakov Aveinu:

Hebrew for ‘our father jacob’

 

 Yavatz:

Hebrew initials for Yaakov ben Tzvi. Name of Rabbi Yaakov Emden

 

 Yechzkel:

Hebrew name for the book of Ezekiel

 

 Yehoshua:

Hebrew for Joshua

 

 Yerushalmi:

Talmud that was compiled in Pales tine as opposed to the standard one that was compiled in Babylonia called the Bavli

 

 Yeshaya:

Hebrew name for book of Isaiah

 

 Yeshiva:

School for older boys

 

 Yetzer:

lit. Inclination. It is Jewish belief that every Jew has both an evil and good inclination within him, that are at ‘war’ to see which of them the person will follow.

 

 Yetzer HaRah:

Heb. Evil Inclination.

 

 Yetzer Tov:

Heb. Good Inclination

 

 Yirmiya:

Hebrew name for the book of Jeremiah

 

 Yitzchok:

Hebrew for Isaac

 

 YM’Sh:

Heb. Yimach Shimoh V’Zichro : Their name should be erased Yom Kippur: The Day of Atonement, the most holy day of the Jewish year.

 

 Yom Suf:

Hebrew ‘sea of reeds’.

 

 Yom Tov:

Hebrew name for ‘holiday’

 

 Yortzheit:

Yiddish for the day of the anniversary of a death

 

 Z’L:

Hebrew initials of the words: Zechorono LeVaracha (His memory is a blessing.)

 

 Zachor:

See Shabbos Zachor

 

 Zemeros:

sefer of songs sung on various occasions

 

 Zohar:

Hebrew/Aramaic Rabbinical Kabbalistical work that is one of the most important sources for Kabbalah, and was very influential with Chasidim

 

 Zohar Chadash:

Literally ‘new Zohar’. A section of the Zohar.

 

 ZT’L:

Hebrew initials of the words: Zechor
Tzaddik LeVaracha (The memory of a Tzaddik - Righteous person is a blessing.)

 

 ZTvK’L:

Hebrew initials of the words: Zechor Tzaddik veKadosh LeVaracha (The memory of a Tzaddik - Righteous man and a Kodosh - a holy man is a blessing)

 

 ZY’A:

Hebrew initials for Zechiso Yugan Aleini, His merit should protect us

  

volker doormann    -  2006.06.06